Cipro contains an active substance called Ciprofloxacin and belongs to a group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics. It acts by inhibiting enzymes called topoisomerase II and topoisomerase IV. These enzymes are involved in replication, transcription, and recombination of bacterial DNA. Cipro is particularly effective in fighting infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.
Therefore, Cipro is used to treat the following infections:
- Lower respiratory tract infections caused by gram-negative bacteria (pneumonia, bronchitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including exacerbations)
- Genital tract infections (urethritis, cervicitis, and epididymo-orchitis caused by a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhea)
- Skin infections and soft tissue infections caused by gram-negative bacteria
- Chronic inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media chronica suppurativa)
- Chronic sinusitis, especially if it is caused by gram-negative bacteria
- Infections of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., traveler’s diarrhea)
- Intra-abdominal infections
- Bone and joint infections
- Urinary tract infections
- Malignant otitis externa
- Inhalation anthrax
Cipro is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to any of the antibiotics from the group of fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, and others), as well as in patients taking Tizanidine (a medicine used to treat muscle spasticity).
Studies have shown that Cipro can cause rupture of tendons (Achilles tendon, biceps, hand, shoulder, and thumb). The risk of this side effect is greater in patients above the age of 60, in patients who have kidney, heart or lung transplants, as well as in patients taking Corticosteroids. If you notice pain or inflammation of the muscle for no apparent reason, you should contact your doctor immediately. Cipro should not be used in patients who have had tendon rupture or tendinitis in history.
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Cipro may increase the risk of peripheral neuropathy. If you notice symptoms such as burning, numbness, or tingling sensation, you should contact your doctor immediately. The drug should not be used in diabetic patients who have already developed peripheral neuropathy (a common complication of diabetes).
Clinical studies have shown that Cipro can cause side effects on the central nervous system, such as agitation, anxiety, confusion, paranoia, nervousness, hallucinations, depression, and suicidal thoughts. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should contact your physician immediately. Cipro may reduce the threshold for epileptic seizures and should not be used in patients who suffer from epilepsy. Since this drug blocks neuromuscular activity, it should not be used in patients with myasthenia gravis because it can seriously worsen the condition.
The dose to be administered depends on many factors (infection severity, site of infection, the sensitivity of the microorganism to Ciprofloxacin, as well as the clinical course of the disease). The dosage is usually higher in infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or staphylococci – Cipro can also be combined with other antibiotics in treating these kinds of infections.
Cipro can be taken regardless of meals, although it has been proven that taking on an empty stomach improves the absorption of the drug. It should not be taken at the same time with milk and dairy products, and with juices enriched with minerals. Calcium from milk or juice can reduce the absorption of Cipro and decrease its effect.
Recommended Dosage in Adults
Recommendations for dosing in adult patients (older than 18 years) who can buy Ciprofloxacin online are listed below:
- for the treatment of pneumonia, bronchitis, exacerbation of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic sinusitis, chronic inflammation of the middle ear, skin, and soft tissue infections – Ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 1-2 weeks
- for the treatment of malignant otitis externa – 750mg twice daily for 1-3 months
- for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis (bladder infections) in women who have undergone menopause – 250-500mg twice daily for three days, while in premenopausal women recommended dose is 500mg as a single dose
- for the treatment of complicated cystitis and uncomplicated pyelonephritis – 500mg twice daily for one week
- for the treatment of complicated pyelonephritis – 500-750mg twice daily for at least ten days
- for the treatment of prostatitis – 500-750mg twice daily for 2-4 weeks (for acute forms) and 4-6 weeks (for chronic forms)
- for the treatment of gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis – 500mg as a single dose
- for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Shigella dysenteriae type I – 500mg twice daily for five days, while the recommended dose in the treatment of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae – 500mg twice daily for three days
- for the treatment of bone and joint infections – 500-750mg twice daily for up to 3 months
- for the treatment of prophylaxis of inhalation anthrax – 500mg twice daily for two months from the confirmation of exposure to Bacillus anthracis
Dosage in the Pediatric Population
In children, the dose should be determined based on their body weight.
The recommended dosage for the treatment of cystic fibrosis is 20mg/kg of body weight for 10-14 days.
The recommended dose for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections is 10-20mg/kg of body weight for 10-21 days.
Dosage in Patients with Impaired Renal Function
People who have an impaired renal function must take lower doses of Cipro. In patients who have creatinine clearance 30-60ml/min, use of doses higher than 500mg twice daily is not recommended, while patients who have creatinine clearance less than 30ml/min should not take doses greater than 500mg once daily.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions are nausea (affects 2.5% of patients), diarrhea (affects 1.6% of patients), elevated levels of the liver enzyme in the blood (affects 1.3% of patients), vomiting (affects 1% of patients), and rash (affects 1% of patients).
Cipro may also cause the following side effects:
- Heart attack
- Angina pectoris
- Rapid heart rate
- Low blood pressure
- Manic episodes
- Epileptic seizures
- Suicidal thoughts
- A migraine
- Low or high blood glucose levels
- Renal failure
- Difficulty breathing
- Tendon rupture or tendinitis
- Excessive sweating
- Coughing up blood
- Double vision
- Hearing impairment
- Taste perversion
- Allergic reactions
Tell your doctor if you notice any side effects.